I went looking specifically for a taxonomy of detective plots. The ‘locked room’ plot is the only one of which I was aware, but I was sure there were other such. In the event, I did better, finding a more general taxonomy of mysteries, which includes plots but also other ways of classifying detective and mystery stories. For a listologist like me, it’s a delight:
I had in mind that Russian dude who did a thing on the Russian folk tale which was quite important in the development of narratology:
Propp, Vladimir 1968 , The Morphology of the Folktale, tr. Laurence Scott, from Morfologia Skazi, Leningrad) University of Texas Press, Austin (second edition 1970). There’s also this:
Todorov, Tzvetan 1977, ‘The typology of detective fiction’  and ‘An introduction to verisimilitude,’  in The Poetics of Prose, Cornell UP, Ithaca.